Are SSH and SFTP the Same?
SSH and SFTP are a classic pair. They intertwine when it comes to securing communication, and while they have similar capabilities, they are not the same thing. So, what’s the difference between them? Read on to find out.
What is SSH?
Secure Shell (SSH) is a transport layer that is used to secure logins and information moving between two endpoints. SSH use a combination of asymmetric (public and private key) and symmetric cryptology to provide strong encryption and optimal performance. It allows for secure communication between an organization and remote servers.
What is SFTP?
SFTP (SSH File Transfer Protocol) is a protocol built SSH to transfer files securely. By using the SSH transport layer, SFTP can securely move large amounts of data over an internet connection.
SFTP utilizes the SSH transport layer to establish a secure authenticated connection and provide organizations with a higher level of file transfer protection. It uses the SSH authentication and cryptographic capabilities to keep files safe during the transfer process.
Related Reading: More Terms to Know – GoAnywhere Glossary
SSH and SFTP Authentication
Since SFTP is the transport protocol built on the SSH transport layer, SSH user authentication is used for both SSH and SFTP communication.
How Does the SSH Authentication Work?
SSH typically supports the following methods for user authentication:
- Password based authentication where a user name and password is supplied.
- Key based authentication where a user name and an SSH key is supplied. Key based authentication has the benefit of being able to use the same key for multiple servers and eliminates password management.
- Two-factor authentication where a user name, a password and an SSH key is supplied. Two-factor authentication offers the highest level of security.
While SSH doesn’t require two-factor authentication, you do have the choice to require both a user ID and password, as well as SSH keys, for a more secure connection. Using SSH keys helps prevent imposters from connecting to the server.
Before using SSH keys for authentication, you must first generate both an SSH private key and a public key. The SSH public key is sent to your trading partner and they must load it onto their SSH or SFTP server and associate it with your account. When you connect to their SSH or SFTP server, the server will verify the key for authentication. If everything matches, then the authentication will succeed.
How Are SSH and SFTP Similar?
SFTP cannot exist without SSH — SFTP uses SSH as the binding agent to transfer files securely. In other words, SSH protocol is used in the file transfer mechanism SFTP. In fact, most SSH servers include SFTP capabilities. However, not all SFTP servers support SSH commands and actions.
How Are SSH and SFTP Different?
Although they are both used to transfer information securely, unlike SFTP, SSH is able to exist on its own. Typical applications for SSH are remote command-line, login, and remote command execution. SFTP is the file transfer protocol that provides secure file access, file transfer, and file management over a reliable data stream.
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